By J. Kennedy M.A. (auth.)
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Additional info for Asian Nationalism in the Twentieth Century
Generally, the years just before the First World War were marked by an all-round improvement in relationships between Britain and India. The more moderate leaders were dominant in Congress as Tilak served his prison sentence. Even at this period, however, another element in Indian nationalism occurred from time to time; this was terrorism, the use of the bomb and the gun against government officials and others. Political agitation in Bengal had earlier produced outbursts of terrorism, Japan, China, the Indian Subcontinent 37 and similar incidents in the Punjab were due mainly to social and economic grievances.
The National Congress in its early years was anything but national or representative in character; it moved in small circles of Western-educated middle-class Indians. In dress, manner and procedure many of its members could hardly have seemed more British. Yet some of the causes for which it spoke were truly Indian. Prominent among these were the cause of government reforms to provide more Indian representation in central and provincial councils and the plea for improved opportunities for Indians in the civil service and the armed forces.
The two nationalisms were evident then and later in Japanese gains in Formosa and Manchuria, in the harbouring by Japan of Chinese revolutionaries before 19II, in the Twenty-One Demands of 1915, the relationships with China in the 1920S and, finally, in the Manchuria Incident of 1931 and the euphemistically-named 'China Incident' which signified the invasion of China by Japan from 1937 onwards. One irony of China's defeat at the hands of Japan in 1895 was that, culturally, Japan was very much in China's debt.
Asian Nationalism in the Twentieth Century by J. Kennedy M.A. (auth.)