Download e-book for iPad: Algebra Seven: Combinatorial Group Theory. Applications to by Parshin A. N. (Ed), Shafarevich I. R. (Ed)

By Parshin A. N. (Ed), Shafarevich I. R. (Ed)

This quantity of the EMS contains components. the 1st entitled Combinatorial workforce conception and basic teams, written by means of Collins and Zieschang, presents a readable and accomplished description of that a part of team conception which has its roots in topology within the conception of the elemental staff and the idea of discrete teams of adjustments. through the emphasis is at the wealthy interaction among the algebra and the topology and geometry. the second one half by way of Grigorchuk and Kurchanov is a survey of contemporary paintings on teams in relation to topological manifolds, facing equations in teams, relatively in floor teams and unfastened teams, a examine by way of teams of Heegaard decompositions and algorithmic features of the Poincaré conjecture, in addition to the suggestion of the expansion of teams. The authors have integrated an inventory of open difficulties, a few of that have no longer been thought of formerly. either components include a variety of examples, outlines of proofs and whole references to the literature. The booklet should be very necessary as a reference and advisor to researchers and graduate scholars in algebra and topology.

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Extra resources for Algebra Seven: Combinatorial Group Theory. Applications to Geometry

Example text

Consider the Euler characteristic of lE/G, an orientable closed surface of genus g. If F is a fundamental domain then there is one face, rg edgesand at least m vertices since there are m different conjugacy classesof maximal finite cyclic groups. Hence 2 - 2g = x(lE/G) 2 m-ro+l==+rB>2g+m-1. 0 These arguments can also be used to determine the geometric rank of all planar discontinuous groups which do not contain reflections. 19 below) coincide. Let us give the final result. 18. , sky-, fj si firtj.

Definition and Proposition. A group G of automorphisms of a planar net E is called a planar discontinuous group. (a) Every planar discontinuous group G has a fundamental domain. Any fundamental domain of G is simply connected. (b) IE/G is a surface. The group G has compact fundamental domain if and only if the surface E/G is compact. The projection p : E -+ E/G is a homomorphism of complexes which is a covering if and only if G is torsionfree. In this case G coincides with the group of covering transformations of the covering.

Since the latter group is finitely presentable the group Out (7rr (S,)) is finitely presentable. 19. 16. Equivalence of Subgroups under Automorphism. A striking generalisation of Whitehead’s argument was introduced in [Gersten 19841. Let H be a finitely generated subgroup of the free group F = F(X) of finite rank. 4). The core Xe of X is the smallest subgraph of X containing the basepoint whose fundamental group has the same rank as nr(X) - in effect Xa is the smallest subgraph containing all the reduced generating paths of xl(X).

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Algebra Seven: Combinatorial Group Theory. Applications to Geometry by Parshin A. N. (Ed), Shafarevich I. R. (Ed)

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