By Oscar Swan
A Concise Grammar of Polish is meant to be used as a supplementary reference textual content at the starting and intermediate degrees of Polish language learn. it's also compatible to be used because the fundamental textual content in a path on Polish morphology (although routines would have to be supplied through the instructor).
Phonological and morphological procedures are given particular remedy and representation all through. Sections on declension and conjugation objective at an entire description of all common and such a lot abnormal phenomena. Descriptions of types are liberally supplemented with comments pertaining to derivation, utilization, and alterations among Polish and English.
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Additional info for A concise grammar of Polish
Two nouns in this class (kość ‘bone’, nić ‘thread’) have exceptional Ipl. forms in -mi instead of the expected -ami. A small number of masculine soft stem nouns have the same exceptional form, which is listed under soft masculines. 54 C. Neuter Nouns There are three major phonological subtypes of neuter nouns, analogous to the three-way split of masculine zero nouns: hard non-velar, velar, and soft. The cases which are sensitive to stem-finals are the Nsg. and Lsg. The hard non-velar type has both Nsg.
This refers to the type of consonant found at the end of the stem, to which the grammatical ending is added. Since the terms hard and soft are often used, but seldom defined adequately, a few comments on this topic are in order. Phonetically speaking, soft consonants are those which have a higher frequency, or tonality, and which manifest a tongue position which fills most of the space immediately below the palate. For Polish, these include the palatalized and palatal consonants [p’, b’, f’, v’, m’, ś, ź, ć, dź, ń, j], all of which can appear in the stem-final position.
Ending after -on suffix of past passive participle: niesiony wieziony niesieni wiezieny 2. Conditioning factor is the open or closed syllable which follows the vowel in question. Closed position refers to a syllable which ends in a consonant. Conversely, an open syllable is one which ends in a vowel. In the two Polish alternations based on this factor, two vowels are commonly found in open position ([o, ę]), due to a vocalic ending. However, when a zero ending is used instead, their syllable becomes closed and there is commonly encountered alternation to [u, ą], respectively.
A concise grammar of Polish by Oscar Swan